Friday, 3 August 2018

Sun and Skin Cancer in the U.S.: Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersection.

Natural and artificial ultraviolet light is a risk factor for all types of skin cancer, the majority of melanoma cases are caused by ultraviolet exposure. One sunburn during childhood can double chances of developing melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Five or more sunburns between 15 and 20 increase the risk by 80%.

In the U.S., incidence of basal cell carcinoma increased by 145% from 1976 to 1984 and from 2000 to 2010, squamous cell carcinoma by 263% over the two periods. The greatest increase of both types was observed among women. Melanoma rates doubled from 1982 to 2011. Invasive melanoma is the fifth most common cancer for men and the sixth most common one for women. Before the age of 50, melanoma incidence rates are higher in women, by age 65, rates are twice as high in men. In 2018, it is estimated that 9.320 deaths are caused by melanoma, 5.990 men and 3.330 women.
Men with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer, women of developing leukemia, breast, kidney and lung cancer.
“Sunscreen is a category of lotion and so putting on sunscreen is equivalent to admitting you’re the sun’s bitch. In fact, thanks in part to the stupid idea that lotion carries girl cooties, men are two to three times more likely to be diagnosed with skin cancer. So, fine, dudes, here’s some sunscreen for men. For christ’s sake.” Wade
Nonmelanomia skin cancer incidence rates increase particularly in people who are under 40 years of age. Men older than 79 have a risk of developing melanoma that is three times higher than women of the same age.
Incidence rate in white women younger than 44 has increased 6.1% annually (probably because of indoor tanning). Melanoma is the second most common form of cancer in women between 15 and 29 years of age. From 1970 to 2009, incidence of melanoma increased 800% in women age 18 to 39.

The annual incidence rate of melanoma in white U.S.-Americans is 26:100.000, 4:100.000 in Hispanics and 1:100.000 in black US-Americans. Skin cancer in black US-Americans is diagnosed in later stages when treatment is more difficult and patients are less likely to survive melanoma. They are also prone to develop skin cancer in areas that are usually not exposed to the sun, such as the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.

More/Via: American Academy of Dermatology

- photographs of Coney Island by Leon Levinstein (1910-1988) via and via and via and via
- Interesting: The Sun is Out: Risk of skin cancer in different groups