Thursday, 21 November 2019

Britpop. A (not so subtle) tribute.

"The genre of Britpop, with its assertion of Englishness, evolved at the same time that devolution was striking deep into the hegemonic claims of English culture to represent Britain. It is usually argued that Britpop, with its strident declarations of Englishness, was a response to the dominance of grunge. The contributors in this volume take a different point of view: that Britpop celebrated Englishness at a time when British culture, with its English hegemonic core, was being challenged and dismantled."
Joni Stratton

In the 1990s, Britpop, or the era of "Cool Britannia", became an important part of national identity. It re-branded Britain (via), music and lyrics were "uniquely British" (via).
“Cool Britannia” as an identity was established by the Government. In 1997, New Labour established a landmark victory and promoted themselves as a new start for a Britain that was fast becoming ravaged by unemployment and poverty. New Prime Minister Tony Blair attempted to build on his image by holding a reception at Downing Street for the great and the good on the British art and music scenes and both the Government and the media used the event to highlight the fact that the public should be proud of what was becoming established as a cultural high point for the arts in Britain. (via)
Blur, Oasis and Pulp were "The Holy Trinity of Britpop". While Oasis came from working class background and wrote songs about unemployment, dole checks, cigarettes, alcohol, and an absent father (via), and Pulp responded with "a certain romanticism of working-class culture" (via), Blur were billed as so-called "posh boys" from London with university education. Media, in fact, turned "the battle of the bands from a musical debate into a class war" (via) between the working-class northeners Oasis and the middle-class southerners Blur (via). Britpop finally became known for "highlighting working class Britain and bringing it to the forefront of national identity", blowing "against the repressive forces of political correctness, class division and petty snobbery". The dress code - baggy sports clothing, trainers and Parka jacket - were part of it (via).
Some critics say that the representations of British identity were not authentic and reinforcing "a nostalgic and chauvinist cultural turn which privileged whiteness and to a lesser extent maleness" and that Britpop was marketed by Tony Blair's New Labour (via). Others, again, speak of a proto-feminist movement coming out of Britpop (via) and point out that its representation of national identity was more complex and that non-white and non-English Britpop musicians were there but widely ignored in the academic critique (Lueders, 2016). One thing is clear, Britpop is fantastic. And, it is not really over since a great many bands in the post-Britpop era are influenced by it ... showing discontinuities but also continuities between post-Britpop and the first-generation Britpop (Collinson, 2010).

Britpop Selection:

::: The Bluetones: Slight Return LISTEN/WATCH
::: The La's: There She Goes LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Lightning Seeds: What If LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Boo Radleys: Wake Up Boo! LISTEN/WATCH
::: Travis: Tied to the 90s LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Charlatans: The Only One I Know LISTEN/WATCH
::: Supergrass: Going Out LISTEN/WATCH
::: Blur: The Universal LISTEN/WATCH
::: Oasis: Champagne Supernova LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Verve: Bitter Sweet Symphony LISTEN/WATCH
::: Super Furry Animals: Something 4 the Weekend LISTEN/WATCH
::: Pulp: Disco 2000 LISTEN/WATCH
::: Cast: Sandstorm: LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Lightning Seeds: What You Say LISTEN/WATCH
::: Oasis: Roll With It LISTEN/WATCH
::: Travis: Why Does It Always Rain on Me? LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Lightning Seeds: Sugar Coated Iceberg LISTEN/WATCH
::: Supergrass: Sun Hits the Sky LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Lightning Seeds: You Showed Me LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Verve: Lucky Man LISTEN/WATCH
::: Supergrass: Alright LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Lightning Seeds: Life's Too Short LISTEN/WATCH
::: Pulp: Babies LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Verve: Sonnet LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Lightning Seeds: All I Want LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Boo Radleys: Wish I Was Skinny LISTEN/WATCH
::: Echobelly: Great Things LISTEN/WATCH
::: The Lightning Seeds: Ready or Not LISTEN/WATCH

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- Collinson, I. (2010). Devopop: Pop-Englishness and Post-Britpop Guitar Bands. In A. Bennett & J. Stratton (eds.) Britpop and the English Music Tradition (163-178). London & New York: Routledge.
- Lueders, C. (2016). Britpop's Common People - National identity, popular music and young people in the 1990's. University of London: Doctoral Thesis, LINK
- photographs of Richard Ashcroft via and Damon Albarn via

Wednesday, 20 November 2019

"The art world is simply not the liberal, progressive bastion that it imagines itself to be."

According to a study that looked at 26 art museums and institution in the US and an analysis of the global art market ranging from 2008 to 2018, only 2% of global art auction is spent on work by women. In addition, five artists make up 40.7% of these 2%, with Yayoi Kusama accounting for 25%. 11% of the art acquisitions for permanent collections were by women, i.e., 29.247 of 260.470 acquisitions.(via).

"The art world is simply not the liberal, progressive bastion that it imagines itself to be."
Helen Molesworth

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photograph (Picasso exhibition, Tate Gallery, 1960) via

Saturday, 16 November 2019

Stereotyping - a Distancing Mechanism

"Stereotyping involves the representation and evaluation of others in ways that ratify and endorse unequal social relations. It does so by making such representations appear fixed and unchanging as well as in stark contrast to the identities of those who engage in and perpetuate them. Stereotypes diminish the social standing of those targeted, reducing them to a particular attribute or disposition that either demeans them or confines them to achievement only in association with this attribute or disposition. This acts as a distancing mechanism, radically separating those stereotyped from those among whom the stereotypes circulate and are reproduced. Stereotyping always occurs within a two-way, but one-sided relationship, and operates in favor of the existing status quo."
Pickering (2015)

Read the whole paper:
Pickering, M. (2015). Stereotyping and Stereotypes. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism: LINK

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photograph by the amazing Vivian Maier via

Friday, 15 November 2019

Narrative images: Socialite Gathering (1964)

"At this socialite gathering in Dallas, the maid was just another piece of furniture." (Kelen, 2012). The photograph was taken by Bob Adelman in Texas, Dallas in 1964.

- Kelen, L. G. (2012). This Light of Ours. Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement. University Press of Mississippi
- photograph via

Wednesday, 13 November 2019

Meet Me in Cannes

No, I won't be at the Cannes Film Festival, and I won't walk the red carpet, and tabloids won't be bothered about what I wear ... But I'll be on Campus International de Cannes where I will be talking about ethnic stereotypes in character design.

In the past years, I analysed stereotypical African and Asian characters in popular European comics and animated cartoons from the 1930s to the 21st century. One conclusion: Both African and Asian characters still represent "the Other", uncivilised, black monkey-like, and yellow buck-toothed people.

15 November 2019
Campus International de Cannes

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photograph of Annie Girardot in Cannes (1972) via

Wednesday, 6 November 2019

Quoting Damon Albarn (II)

"I was looking through stuff not that long ago, and I found a front page of the Sun from the Britpop era. I’d written on a bit of it in Biro when I was doing Parklife: ‘Anglo-Saxistentalism’. I thought: ‘That’s weird – that’s what I’m talking about now.’ In the most crass form, we say we want our country back. But you need to know what your country is before you want it back. And part of that is understanding who we are. We’re Vikings. We’re Anglo-Saxons. We’re French, Belgian, Nigerian, Caribbean, Ghanian, Somalian, Pakistani. To say, ‘We’re just this’ seems ridiculous to me. That’s all. That’s my biggest problem with [Brexit]: don’t limit yourself, guys. I don’t think we can afford to have that attitude. We need to be very outward-looking."
Damon Albarn

Blur on YouTube:
::: There's No Other Way: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Chemical World: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Beetlebum: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Young and Lovely: LISTEN/WATCH
::: To the End: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Charmless Man: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Under the Westway: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Parklife: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Girls and Boys: LISTEN/WATCH
::: End of a Century: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Music is My Radar: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Lonesome Street: LISTEN/WATCH
::: She's So High: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Country House: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Stereotypes: LISTEN/WATCH

Related postings:
::: Quoting Damon Albarn: LINK
::: Hallelujah Money: LINK

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photograph via

Monday, 4 November 2019

An Abstract. A Nice One. On Populism.

This paper posits four possible reasons there may exist a fundamental, non-incidental connection between populism and the rhetoric of bullshit, as defined by Frankfurt as speech whose truth value its speaker is indifferent towards:

1) “Bullshit as Sincerity”: Populists’ claim to authentically represent “the people” and their “folk” values, combined with their wholesale rejection of the intellectual class and their values, makes them value sincerity over accuracy, leading them to construct statements with little regard for their veracity;
2) “Bullshit as Symbolism”: populist communication is frequently primarily meant to convey symbolic, unarticulated messages, leading literal meaning to be overlooked;
3) “Bullshit as Partisanship”: populists’ audiences are likely to assess their claims as true regardless of content, giving populists incentive to be construct statements without regard for the truth;
4) “Bullshit as Unfalsifiability”: Populists regard as unfalsifiable a central claim – the exclusivity of their claim to popular representation - and will thus tend to bullshit whenever contradicting evidence arises.
Based on these connections, possible strategies for combatting bullshit propagated by populists is discussed.
(Green, 2019)

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- Green, A. (2019). Speaking Bullshit to Power: Populism and the Rhetoric of Bullshit; link
- photograph of preacher with bible in London's Speaker's Corner taken by Philip Wolmuth in 1993 via

Friday, 1 November 2019

The Corner Shop Stereotype + Cornershop

"Few stereotypes are more enduring than that of the Asian shopkeeper. The image is that of a hard-working businessman with strong family loyalties and Thatcherite values, who makes a small fortune by exploiting every niche in the market. It is an image of success which politicians often hold up as proof of 'opportunity Britain' where even penniless immigrants can make it through hard graft and business flair. It is also, according to a new study, a myth." (via)

In their paper published in 1980, Aldrich et al. describe Asian shopkeepers in Britain as an economically segregated sector that serves "a socially segregated population" (Aldrich et al., 1980). The number of these shops started declining once the first generation of immigrants retired and their children were not willing to take over the family business saying, "I am not going to work 16-hour days in a corner shop for peanuts and get all that abuse from people who are no better than me, and in some cases are not as good." (via).
This picture of Asian entrepreneurs busily working towards their own self-defined goals and seemingly immune from the constraints imposed by the surrounding social environment is entirely consistent with a view which frequently underpins studies of Asian communities in Britain. In explaining Asian relationships with white society and especially the acute segregation of the two groups, many writers emphasise what might be termed the "principle of minority group autonomy". Segregation from the white majority, it is argued (or implied), should be seen not so much as a consequence of white rejection but rather as an expression of minority free choice.
Aldrich & McEvoy (1980:8)

In the 1990s, Asian bands started entering the British mainstream music industry, bands that were "extremely uncomfortable with the idea of using their Asianness to promote themselves" fearing that it would have a negative impact on how Asians were viewed by society and foster negative stereotypes (Hyder, 2004). One of them was Cornershop founded by Tjinder Singh. His parents had emigrated to England, "where he was born and raised in Wolverhampton, with a foot in both cultures. Sort of." The name of the band is an ironic comment on the British Asian corner shop stereotype.
I think it’s also an element of growing up outside those two cultures as well. I don’t consider myself either one of those. But that was a good thing. It meant that I was a lot more open about things.
It was rough. . . . There was [racism]. But I did a lot of other things that helped me have a wider view of some things early on. Like playing on the chess team, traveling a lot with them. . . . My [friends] were pretty mixed, in the main nationalities that you get in England--African, Caribbean, Asian [Indian], English. . . . I quite liked that. I used to tend to get to know everyone.
Tjinder Singh
Like he says in one of his songs, he’s kind of a walking contradiction or puzzle or paradox. I think a lot of his makeup is [from] not being accepted by either parts of his family to maybe parts of the music communities in England.
David Byrne on Tjinder Singh

Cornershop on YouTube:

::: Brimful of Asha: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Sleep on the Left Side: LISTEN/WATCH
::: Soul School: LISTEN/WATCH

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- Aldrich, H. E., Cater, J. C., Jones, T. P. & Mcevoy, D. (1980). Business development and self-segregation: Asian enterprise in three British cities; LINK + LINK
- Hyder, R. (2004). Brimful of Asia. Negotiating Ethnicity on the UK Music Scene. Routledge.
- photographs of Cornershop via and via

Monday, 28 October 2019

Spock, the Outsider Struggling to Understand Humanity

"Leonard Nimoy inspired many boys and girls, men and women, to embrace cultural diversity."
Robert Greene

"Spock’s importance to the Trek mythos is unmistakable. His character was the first of several characters in Star Trek used to explore the human condition. Data in The Next Generation, Odo in Deep Space Nine, Seven of Nine and The Doctor in Voyager, T’Pol in Enterprise: all these characters are just different incarnations of Spock, the outsider struggling to understand humanity. He was the consummate outsider to the rest of the Enterprise crew. In a sense, we could all relate to Spock. When have you felt misunderstood, alone, or isolated? Or have you ever experienced being stuck between two worlds, two cultures, two distinct ways of thinking? In that case you were, for a moment, Spock."
Robert Greene

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 photograph of Leonard Nimoy (Westwood, California, 1966) via

Friday, 25 October 2019

Speaking to the Whole Family of Humankind. Nichelle Nichols, NASA Recruiter (1977)

"I had always been proud of our feats in space. But something always bothered me: Where are the women? Where are the people of color?"
Nichelle Nichols

The United States landed a man on the moon in 1969 -- but our astronauts needn't be limited to white males.
There were no women, and there were no minorities in the space program -- and that's supposed to represent the whole country?
Not in this day and age. We just absolutely cannot have that. I can't be a part of that. 
I was somewhat of a celebrity in their eyes. I had gone on television and in several interviews spoke of why they should get involved, and they took it up and said 'she's absolutely right'.
Nichelle Nichols
In the 1960s, spaceflight was a (white) male-dominated programme. After Kennedy's speech to the nation calling for Congress to give "all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public", Kennedy and Johnson (at the time Vice President) "took steps to create more inclusive job opportunities as part of the buildup for the Apollo lunar landing program" and NASA started to encourage black US-Americans to work at one of their facilities. Initially, progress was rather slow. In 1967, Robert Henry Lawrence Jr. (1935-1967) became NASA's first black astronaut, Guy Bluford was the first black US-American to fly in space in 1983 - the same year Sally Ride became the first US-American woman in space (via) who, by the way, had heard about the space programme through Nichelle Nichols (via).
In an unprecedented move, knowing that NASA was planning to hire approximately 200,000 people in Southern states, recruiters were asked to travel around the country trying to persuade African-American scientists and engineers to work in the space program.
Janet Petro

Nichelle Nichols was hired to change the face of NASA by recruiting women and minority astronauts such as Ronald McNairSally Ride and Mae Jamison (via). She promised to bring "many qualified women and minority astronaut applicants"...
When NASA was developing the Space Shuttle in the 1970s, it needed to recruit a new group of astronauts to fly the vehicle, deploy the satellites, and perform the science experiments, and was encouraging women and minorities to apply to be astronauts. The Agency hired Nichelle Nichols, who played Lt. Nyota Uhura as the Communications Officer on the Starship Enterprise in Star Trek, to record a recruiting video. She came to JSC in March 1977, and accompanied by Apollo 12 and Skylab 3 astronaut Alan L. Bean, toured the center and filmed scenes for the video in Mission Control and other facilities. NASA hoped that her stature and popularity would encourage women and minorities to apply, and indeed they did. In January 1978, when NASA announced the selection of 35 new astronauts, among them for the first time were women and minorities
John Uri, NASA Johnson Space Center
...and kept her promise.
I am going to bring you so many qualified women and minority astronaut applicants for this position that if you don't choose one… everybody in the newspapers across the country will know about it.
Suddenly the people who were responding were the bigger Trekkers you ever saw. They truly believed what I said… it was a very successful endeavor. It changed the face of the astronaut corp forever.
Nichelle Nichols

"Hi, I'm Nichelle Nichols but I still feel a little bit like Lieutenant Uhura on the Starship Enterprise. You know, now there is a 20th century enterprise, an actual space vehicle built by NASA and designed to put us into the business of space. (...) The shuttle may even be used to build a space station in order to orbit the earth. And this would require the services of people with a variety of skills and qualifications. (...) Now, the shuttle will be taking scientists and engineers, men and women of all races into space just like the astronaut crew on the Starship Enterprise. So that is why I'm speaking to the whole family of humankind - minorities and women alike. If you qualify and would like to be an astronaut, now is the time. This is your NASA, a space agency embarked on a mission to improve the quality of life on planet earth right now."

Related postings:

::: The Future of Women Astronauts Seen From 1962: LINK
::: The Nonstereotypical Role of Lieutenant Uhura: LINK
::: Public Library: LINK
::: Nichelle Nichols. Her Legacy Project: LINK
::: "It's as simple as that.": LINK
::: Tomorrowland & The Cultural Lag Theory: LINK

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- images via and via
- NASA 1977 recruitment film

Thursday, 24 October 2019

Media and the Muslim Terrorist

Terrorist attacks receive press coverage. There is, however, a disparity in media coverage based on the perpetrators' religion as the following figures clearly show: an average of 15 headlines if the attack is carried out by a non-Muslim vs 105 headlines if it is committed by a Muslim extremist. In other words, terrorist attacks committed by Muslims receive 357% more press coverage (via).

Controlling for target type, fatalities, and being arrested, attacks by Muslim perpetrators received, on average, 357% more coverage than other attacks. Our results are robust against a number of counterarguments. The disparities in news coverage of attacks based on the perpetrator’s religion may explain why members of the public tend to fear the “Muslim terrorist” while ignoring other threats. More representative coverage could help to bring public perception in line with reality.
Kearns et al., 2017
Between 2008 and 2016, rightwing terrorists committed twice as many attacks as Muslim extremists (via), however, we seem to mainly remember the ones committed by the latter. And this is no coincidence. According to a recent study, media are rather reluctant to label far-right attackers as terrorists; Islamist extremists are three times more likely to be called terrorists (via). Media coverage plays a crucial role in shaping our perception of social groups.

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- Kearns, E. M., Betus, A. E. & Lemieux, A. F. (2017). Why Do Some Terrorist Attacks Receive More Media Attention Than Others? Justice Quarterly, 36(6), 985-1022.
- photograph via

Monday, 21 October 2019

Immigration Man (Graham Nash, 1972)

"It’s a song that sounds as grimly relevant as ever with its aching chorus: “Let me in / Let me in / immigration man / Can I cross the line and pray?”"
Rob LeDonne

Graham Nash wrote the song "Immigration Man" after "an unfortunate moment" he had with a US Customs official when entering the country (he became a naturalised US citizen in 1978). The official held him up drawing the attention of the people around them who came up to Nash asking him for his autograph. Finally, Nash was allowed to go through but he did not forget the incident. For the cover of the sheet music he chose a photograph of earth taken from space: "When you look at a photograph of the earth you don't see any borders. That realisation is where our hope as a planet lies." (via)
I would really have loved the perspective of the astronauts. To stand on the f—ing moon and look back at the Earth — how beautiful, right? But when you see the first photograph of the Earth Rise, there’s no boundaries. There’s no borders. There’s no f—ing walls. There’s just this blue marble in space.
It’s really funny because a lot of people think that space is out there, but as we’re eating our lunch, we’re in space. So that’s why I put that photo on the sheet music. I wanted people to know. How many countries are in the world now? No, no, it’s just one planet!
Graham Nash
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The song on YouTube:
::: Immigration Man: LISTEN
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There I was at the immigration scene
Shining and feeling clean, could it be a sin?
I got stopped by the immigration man
He said he doesn't know if he can let me in

Let me in, immigration man
Can I cross your line and pray?
I can stay another day, won't you let me in, immigration man?
I won't toe your line today, I can't see it anyway

There he was with his immigration face
Giving me a paper chase but the sun was coming
'Cos all at once he looked into my space
And stamped a number all over my face and he sent me running

Come on and let me in, immigration man
Can I cross your line and pray?
I can stay another day, won't you let me in, immigration man?
I won't toe your line today, I can't see it anyway

Here I am with my immigration form and it's big enough to keep me warm
When a cold wind's coming, go where you will
As long as you think you can, you'd better watch out
Watch out for the man anywhere you're going

Come on and let me in, immigration man
Can I cross your line and pray?
I can stay another day, won't you let me in, immigration man?
I won't toe your line today, I can't see it anyway

lyrics via

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photograph of Graham Nash taken by (c) Barry Schultz in The Hague in 1974 via

Thursday, 17 October 2019

Capucine on Women Screenwriters

Interviewer: (....) And of course male screenwriters almost invariably give more dialogue to male characters.
Capucine: That is why I think it is much more important or influential for women to write movies than to direct them. It is the writers who give us what we see and hear on the screen.

- Hadleigh, B. (2016). Hollywood Lesbians. From Garbo to Foster. Riverdale: Riverdale Avenue Books.
- photograph of Germaine Hélène Irène Lefebvre "Capucine" (1928-1990) via

Tuesday, 15 October 2019

Leonard Nimoy Boldly Went Where No Photographer Had Gone Before

" I didn’t realise it until after he died – for whatever reason, I’d just never done the mental arithmetic – but Leonard Nimoy is responsible for the single most transformative moment of my life. In a very tangible way, Leonard Nimoy saved me."
Lindy West

(...) it’s one particular area of Nimoy’s art and activism that, for me, transcended appreciation and actually changed my life, and I’m surprised by how few people in my circle know about it. In 2007, Nimoy published a collection of photographs he titled The Full Body Project. The photos are in black and white, and they feature a group of women laughing, smiling, embracing, gazing fearlessly into the camera. In one, they sway indolently like the Three Graces; in another they recreate Herb Ritts’s iconic pile of supermodels. The women are naked, and the women are fat.

When Nimoy’s photos took their first brief viral trip around the internet, I clicked, I skimmed, I shrugged, I clicked away.

I clicked back.

I couldn’t stop looking. It was the first time in my life – I realise in retrospect – that I’d seen bodies like mine honoured instead of lampooned, presented with dignity instead of scorn, displayed as objects of beauty instead of as punchlines. It feels bizarre to put myself back in that headspace now (and even more bizarre to register just how recent it was), but looking at Nimoy’s photographs was my very first exposure to the concept that my body was just as deserving of autonomy and respect as any thin body. Not only that, but my bigness is powerful.

Up until that point, I conceived of myself as an unfinished thing – a life suspended until I could fix what was wrong with me. It’s how fat people are conditioned to feel: you’re not a person, you’re a before picture. You have no present and no future; you’re trapped for ever in a shameful past. As a woman, the shame is compounded, because women have an aesthetic duty, too.

(...) for me, Nimoy’s Full Body Project was the first piece of media that told me I had any intrinsic value. Denying people access to value is an incredibly insidious form of emotional violence, one that our culture wields aggressively and liberally to keep marginalised groups small and quiet. Everything in my life – my career, my relationships, my health, my bank account, my sleep schedule, my wardrobe – has got better since I began fighting that paradigm. I live long, and I prosper. Thank you, Leonard.

Lindy West, excerpts via/full article: LINK

The average American woman, according to articles I've read, weighs 25 per cent more than the models who are showing the clothes they are being sold. So, most women will not be able to look like those models. But they're being presented with clothes, cosmetics, surgery, diet pills, diet programs, therapy, with the idea that they can aspire to look like those people. It's a big, big industry. Billions of dollars. And the cruelest part of it is that these women are being told, 'You don't look right.'
Leonard Nimoy
Leonard Nimoy spent eight years working on his "Fully Body Project" which he published in 2007. He photographed members of the plus-sized burlesque group "The Fat-Bottom Revue" in the nude. Nimoy wanted to portray proud women who were dancing and laughing, he wanted to show that beauty could be found in different body types since he was disturbed by the fact that overweight women had "this terrible feeling about themselves" (via). As some observed, Leonard Nimoy boldly went where no (or hardly any) photographer had gone before (via).
In these pictures these women are proudly wearing their own skin. They respect themselves and I hope that my images convey that to others.
Leonard Nimoy

In an interview, Nimoy talked about how the project started and how he felt about it:

Actually, it began with an individual lady who came to me after a presentation I was doing. It was a seminar of some previous work. And she said to me you're working with a particular body-type model, which was true at the time. She said, I'm not of that type; I'm of a different body type. Will you be interested in working with me? And she was a very, very large lady. And this was in Northern California - I have a home up there - and we invited her to our studio in the home and photographed her there.
And that was the first time I had photographed a person of that size and shape, that kind of body type, and it was scary. I was uncomfortable, nervous - my wife was there to help. I was not sure exactly how to go about it or whether I would do her justice. I didn't know quite how to treat this figure.
And I think that's a reflection of something that's prevalent in our culture. I think, in general, we are sort of conditioned to see a different body type as acceptable and maybe look away when the other body type arrives. It was my first introduction of that kind of work. And when I showed some of that work, there was a lot of interest. And it led me to a new consciousness about the fact that so many people live in body types that are not the type that's being sold by fashion models.
(...) Heather MacAllister, who formed the group, was an anthropologist by training. And during one of our sessions, I said to her, what are you doing with your anthropological training? And she said, I'm doing this, meaning this Fat-Bottom Revue. And she went on further to say, whenever a fat person steps on stage to perform, and it's not the butt of a joke, that's a political statement. And I found that quite profound.

Leonard Nimoy, excerpts via/full article: LINK

photographs of Leonard Nimoy and Sandra Zober (Westwood, California, 1966) via

Monday, 14 October 2019

Exposing the Cruelty and Injustice of Segregation: Bob Adelman

"He was in the belly of the beast, in the middle of what was going on. Whether it was civil rights or gay rights, Bob was there. He was amazing. How many individuals do you know who marched with Dr. Martin Luther King? He was a white Jewish photographer and he also photographed Malcolm X."
James Cavello

Adelman himself was white, yet his personal involvement with the Civil Rights Movement often makes his images seem more than just documentary. He had an ability to convey the humanity of his subjects, whether an unnamed demonstrator holding an “I Am a Man” signboard in Memphis in 1968 or Martin Luther King, Jr, delivering his 1963 “I Have a Dream” speech in Washington, DC.
Alison Meier
Adelman has moved beyond the familiar clichés of most documentary photography into that rare sphere wherein technical ability and social vision combine to create a work of art.
Ralph Ellison
Robert Melvin "Bob" Adelman (1930-2016) was the photographer known for chronicling the civil rights movement of the 1960s including the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (and of Martin Luther King giving his "I Have a Dream" speech) and the Selma to Montgomery March and. He was "drawn to the sit-ins staged by young students across the American South" and volunteered to take photographs for the Congress of Racial Equality when he was a young man. His involvement with civil rights issues continued for decades (via).
It was probably the greatest display of the people’s right to protest that I’ve ever participated in.
Bob Adelman on the Selma to Montgomery March
Adelman had access to Martin Luther King and other civil rights activists such as James Baldwin. His photographs were published in Life, Look, and the New York Times Sunday Magazine. Adelman was an atheist but felt that his covering the civil rights movement and exposing both the injustice and cruelty of segregation was his way of "doing the Lord's work" (via).
And of course the treatment of the demonstrators was very disturbing to me, and their courage was very moving. I was a political idealist, so I went on a Freedom Ride to Maryland and eventually I became the National photographer for CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) and I worked with SNCC (the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) too. For me to get involved in something, I had to see some purpose in it. I realized that my involvement would be very dangerous, but I had a long think with myself, and decided that this was something worth risking your life for. The photographs were very important. They were used as evidence in court cases, they were used to raise money for the movement.
Bob Adelman
My life’s work, in addition to being about race relations, is about the many and diverse social concerns in the great tradition of American documentary photography: poverty, mental illness, alcoholism, inadequate housing, the immigrant experience, prostitution, delinquency, illiteracy and on and on.
Bob Adelman
When I photographed, I was intent on telling the truth as best I saw it and then to help in doing something about it. It was a constant effort not only to document in as honest a way as I could, and to make what I was seeing vivid, but to figure out how to change things.
Bob Adelman
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photograph of Bob Adelman (Selma toMontgomery, 1965) via

Friday, 11 October 2019

One Tweet Every 20 Seconds

"These results back up what women have long been saying – that Twitter is endemic with racism, misogyny and homophobia."
Kate Allen

228.000 tweets sent to 778 women journalists and politicians in the UK and US in 2017 were studied. That year alone, 1.1 million abusive tweets were sent to women which equals an average of one tweet every 20 seconds. Black women were "disproportionally targeted" as they were 87% more likely than white women to be mentioned in problematic tweets (via).

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photograph of "Lois Lane" Margot Kidder (1948-2018) via

Wednesday, 9 October 2019

Desmond Tutu on Climate Apartheid

Back in the 1970s and 1980s, one of our most important levers in overcoming apartheid was the support of global corporations that heeded the call to divest. Apartheid became a global enemy; now it is climate change’s turn.

Yet energy companies are continuing to explore for new fossil fuel reserves that environmental scientists say we will never be able to use. By the time those reserves are tapped, global temperatures will have risen so high that the world as we know it will have ceased to exist. July was not only the hottest month on record globally but also the 415th consecutive month with temperatures above the 20th century average. If not checked now, climate change will wreck all progress people have made in their understanding of the values of equality, shared responsibility, human rights and justice since the second world war and lay to waste the UN Sustainable Development Goals for 2030.

Former UN chief Ban Ki-moon’s blunt warning that we can “delay and pay” for climate change or “plan and prosper” is a clarion call to action, but will those holding the reins of economic power have heard him? The rich and powerful must be persuaded to pay. They have caused most of the mess we are in. Their obligations are not legal; they are based in ethics and human values.

Sadly, the leaders of some of the largest contributors to climate change show little interest in human rights and justice. The prospect of what some are terming climate apartheid, in which the rich pay to protect themselves from the worst impacts while the poor take the full hit is becoming depressingly real.

Desmond Tutu, 3 October 2019

full text see/excerpts via: Financial Times "Climate change is the apartheid of our times"

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Related postings:
::: Quoting Desmond Tutu: LINK
::: Desmond Tutu's Letter to Aung San Suu Kyi: LINK
::: "It doesn't matter where we worship or what we call God...": LINK

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photograph via

Monday, 7 October 2019

Martine Franck. The Photographer Who Found Exclusion Repellent.

Martine Franck (1938-2012) was born in Antwerp, spent her childhood in England and the U.S., and studied art history in Madrid and Paris. She started her career as a photographer as an assistant at Life magazine and joined Magnum in 1980. In 1970, she married Henri Cartier-Bresson, one founding member of Magnum Photos. Franck "made portraits of artists and writers, but her main focus was humanitarian reportages". In 1985, her collaboration with the Little Brothers of the Poor began, a "network of non-profit volunteer-based organizations committed to relieving isolation and loneliness among the elderly" (via).

Franck captured "singular visual moments with memorable elegance and wit" (via).

"Throughout her career Martine Franck oscilated between on the one hand photographing some of the world’s most famous artists and on the other, the most anonymous of subjects: those seemingly rendered invisible in society. Franck’s work dwelled upon the marginalised: the poor and the elderly. The latter form a particularly poigniant subsection of her archive, and many of her most touching images of the elderly were collected in the book ‘Le Temps de Vieillir‘ (A Time to Grow Old) – published by Éditions Denoël in Paris, in 1980."
Magnum Photos

"Martine Franck found exclusion repellent: the exclusion of women, of Tibetans, the elderly, refugees, the inhabitants of Tory Island. She became an activist in support of many of the causes she photographed, demonstrating great courage in a well-brought up young woman who had been taught not to cross boundaries. She explained: ‘The camera is itself a frontier… and to cross on to the other side, you can only get there by momentarily forgetting yourself."
Magnum Photos

“Taking a portrait of someone – be it man or woman – starts with a conversation. It is important for me to try and catch the person when they are listening or when they are in a pensive mood or have forgotten my presence. I rarely ask a person to pose for me as I prefer that they reveal themselves as they wish. For me the eyes and the hands are most important and when possible I like to use natural light. All through my life as a photographer I have made a point of photographing women whom I admire, who have done something special with their lives, who have protested against their fate, also those close to me, like my daughter and grand-daughter and intimate friends all of whom appear in this collection.”
Martine Franck

photographs (Paris, 1972) via and (Paris, 1977) via and (Nanterre, 1978) via and (France, 1980) via and (Worthing) via and (New York, 1979) via and (Paris, 1978) via

Friday, 4 October 2019

Narrative images: Memorial Service

Coretta Scott King, wife of Martin Luther King Jr., attends a memorial service for her slain husband in 1968.

photograph by Bob Adelman via

Thursday, 3 October 2019

"Il me faisait peur, ce monsieur." Michel Piccoli's Political Conscience

Jacques Daniel Michel Piccoli was born in Paris in 1925. Experiencing the war when he was very young shaped him. Perhaps the moment he heard Hitler when he was listening to the radio in the late 1930s was the beginning of him developing a political conscience: "Il me faisait peur, ce monsieur."
Piccoli has always been outspoken. Whether his political activism might have harmed his career as an actor is a question he does not think about. "It may have closed some doors but I have never thought about it." (via)

In 1999, when the Freedom Party of Austria scored its biggest political victory and formed a coalition government - "the first time a party with Nazi origins had become part of a European government since the end of World War II" - an "unprecedented response" from the European Union followed since there was a serious breach of the principles of "liberty, democracy, respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law" (via). In Austria, people protested. One large-scale demonstration took place in Vienna on 19 February 2000 and one of the participants was Michel Piccoli who had gone to Vienna to demonstrate with the Austrians against the far-right coalition (via).

In an interview, Simone Signoret recalled that she, together with Michel Piccoli and Serge Reggiani, once mistakenly arrived two days early for a political demonstration and commented that had they been great scholars they probably would not have attracted "embarrrassing attention and received sympathetic hearing". Her conclusion was: "Moralité, faites donc du cinéma!" (Moores, 1991). Thank you, Monsieur Piccoli, for lending your name to the cause.

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- Moores, P. M. (1991). Celebrities in Politics: Simone Signoret and Yves Montand. In J. Gaffney & E. Kolinsky (eds.) Political Culture in France and Germany (130-154). London & New York: Routledge
- photograph by Jean Ber (1988) via

Wednesday, 2 October 2019

Men Taking Selfies vs Women Taking Selfies

In their study, Sedgewick, Flath, and Elias (2017) collected 962 (508 women, 454 men) profile photographs from Tinder in order to analyse gender differences in the way heterosexual men and women wanted to be perceived by the opposite sex. The results were consistent with the predictions: Men's selfies were angled significantly more often from below while women's selfies were angled more often from above. The authors come to the conclusion that - intuitively or consciously - the illusion of a height disparity is created which again is consistent with height ideals of the opposite sex: Men's selfies from below "facilitate the perception of tallness", women's selfies from above "convey relative shortness".

Several more studies support the prediction that men and women use different strategies with the first taking selfies from above and the latter from below. Makhanova, McNulty, and Maner (2017) discuss reasons in addition to the illusion of height disparity. By taking their photographs in a low relative physical position, women "highlight their youthful features and appear attractive" while men "highlight their size and appear dominant" when they portray themselves in a high relative physical position.
Women were perceived as more attractive when they were photographed from above and that’s particularly because they were perceived as younger and thinner from those angles.
For men, perceived attractiveness wasn’t affected by camera angle. Dominance, however, was. When viewing photographs shot from below, male evaluators looking at photographs of other men found them to be more dominant. “Men were only doing this for other men, and incidentally only men were picking up on this as a cue.” (via)

Diane Cleverly surveyed 352 selfies and found that the same small number of men and women displayed Duchenne or genuine, authentic smiles while significantly more women favoured the non-genuine, polite Pan Am smile compared to men who preferred neutral expressions.
I believe that the social norm of pressuring women to smile, and women feeling as though smiling improves social interactions, might be so ingrained that they tend to smile subconsciously, even when taking selfies in a home setting with no other people around. Men may not be as aware of their facial expressions or may not care for the look of their face smiling. So they take a more neutral expression selfie. Other reasons could include the fact that women take more selfies than men and are more “practiced” at smiling for selfies, albeit not an authentic, emotional smile, or that people taking selfies tend to copy magazine advertisements, which more typically show women smiling, and men non-smiling. (via)

Döring, Reif and Poeschl (2016) investigated gender stereotyping in selfies with a quantitative content analysis of 500 selfies (50% males, 50% females) that had been uploaded on Instagram:
The degree of gender stereotyping in the selfies was measured using Goffman's (1979) and Kang's (1997) gender display categories (e.g. feminine touch, lying posture, withdrawing gaze, sparse clothing) plus three social media-related categories (kissing pout, muscle presentation, faceless portrayal). Additionally, gender stereotyping in selfies was directly compared to the degree of gender stereotyping in magazine adverts measured in the same way (Doring € & Poschl, 2006). Results reveal that male and female Instagram users' selfies not only reflect traditional gender stereotypes, but are even more stereotypical than magazine adverts.
Döring, Reif & Poeschl (2016:955)

Vivian Maier's (1926-2009) brilliant self-portraits:

"The meta quality (the photographer is almost always seen with her camera in the act of taking the shot) and obliqueness (she’s reflected in car mirrors, shop windows, or hubcaps, or seen only in shadow) that characterizes nearly all of these portraits might come across as over-determined, too earnestly artful, if not for Maier’s droll approach not only to composition, but to her own facial and bodily demeanor. Maier often affects a deadpan, somewhat distracted look, her eyes blankly regarding something just outside the photo’s frame. She is her own unwilling subject, just tolerating the intrusion of the camera she’s holding, arms akimbo, below her chest. And then there are the hats: berets, fedoras, straw, that lend her profile a rakish air, sometimes undermined by a slightly doleful expression. Maier presents herself as someone aloof and contentedly so. (...)
In a few images, Maier can be seen without her camera. In a 1960 shot, she broods purposely — chin in hand, beret appropriately tilted — in a snowy park. But in most of these self-portraits, the tool of her trade is unmistakably present, often vying with her face for prominence. The camera is carefully held — offered? — to the viewer as the object deserving our attention. The formality of her poses, her studied impassivity, lend an iconic note to several of these photos, as if she were seeking not to capture herself but to delineate some Platonic notion of “the photographer.” If the potential aesthetic missteps that attend this sort of self-mythologizing are numerous, Maier appears well aware of them and equally confident of her ability to avoid stumbling."
Albert Mobilio

- Döring, N., Reif, A. & Poeschl, S. (2016). How gender-stereotypical are selfies? A content analysis and comparison with magazine adverts. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 955-962.
- Makhanova, A. McNulty, J. K., & Maner, J. K. (2017). Relative Physical Position as an Impression-Management Strategy: Sex Differences in Its Use and Implications, link
- Sedgewick, J. R., Flath, M. E. & Elias, L. J. (2017). Presenting Your Best Self(ie): The Influence of Gender on Vertical Orientation of Selfies on tinder. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, link
- self-portraits taken by Vivian Maier via and via and via and via and via 

Tuesday, 1 October 2019

International Day of Older Persons

"The first of October, the International Day of Older Persons, is a day to stand against ageism and to promote the development of a society that is hospitable to people of all ages" (via). We surely have a long way to go.

"Older people have always played a significant role in society, as leaders, caretakers and custodians of tradition. Yet they are also highly vulnerable, with many falling into poverty, becoming disabled or facing discrimination." (via)

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photograph by Vivian Maier (Chicagoland, June 1978) via

Monday, 30 September 2019

Japan's Ageless Society

“The general trend of uniformly seeing those aged 65 or over as elderly is losing credibility. The government will review the (current) standardization by age bracket and aim to create an ageless society where people of all generations can be active according to their wishes.” (via)

The General Principles Concerning Measures for the Aging Society emphasise independence, participation and choices of the elderly by, for instance, securing employment and working opportunities, offering ability development throughout their lives, promoting lifelong health improvement and creating a lifelong learning system, promoting the involvement of the elderly in social activities, ensuring stable and comfortable housing and community development for the elderly, protecting them from traffic accidents, crimes and disasters, and promoting research. One goal is to create a society "where people are respected as important members throughout their lives" (via).

Japan's policy on the elderly aims to create an ageless society by giving people the opportunity to choose to start receiving pensions at any time between the ages 60 and 70. There is the target to increase the rate of employment among people aged 60 to 64 to 67% by 2020. In addition, measures to enhance well-being and reduce the need for nursing care and the prevention of isolation are included (via).
“Expansion of the right to choose when to receive a public pension has great significance in our changing society. If individuals can choose to delay retirement and get more money on a monthly basis later in life, it could give them a feeling of security about living longer.”
Yoshikazu Kenjo

"Japan has one of the longest longevities in the world. It is expected that Japan’s population will age even more rapidly and the total population will continue to decline.
Under such circumstances, those who reached their advanced ages nowadays remain motivated to work. Taking into consideration also that their stamina and physical fitness have been improving consistently, it is important to realize a society where people of all generations, including the elderly, can take full advantage of their skills and abilities to play an active role in a range of areas. At the same time, we must provide sufficient assistance and a safety net for people to lead a fulfilling life in their golden years, safely and securely.
Therefore, the new General Principles Concerning Measures for the Aged Society has the following pillars: aim to develop an ageless society where people of all generations can play an active role based on their desires; create local communities where people can clearly envision their livelihoods in the golden years at any stage of their life; and intend to utilize new measures enabled by the achievements of technological innovation to deal with an aging society.
I would like all of you to use this General Principles Concerning Measures for the Aged Society as a guideline for taking steps toward building a Japanese society which provides an environment for people of all generations to lead a fulfilling life, along with the initiatives under the Plan to Realize the Dynamic Engagement of All Citizens."
Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister (2018)

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photographs via and via and via

Friday, 27 September 2019

You Usually Find them with One of Those Lady Drinks

Many women don't find whiskey very likeable.
In fact, they find it hard to take.
So you usually find them with gin or vodka, or one of those lady drinks.

But we've changed all that. We've given whiskey more appeal.
A lady can even drink Soft Whiskey straight. Without batting an eyelash. Soft Whiskey swallows nice and easy, treating her ever so tenderly.
But don't get the wrong idea. Soft Whiskey is not softie. It's 86 proof. And does exactly what any 86 proof does. It just does it softer. So lady, be discreet.
Now, about the softening process. All we can tell you is, some of Calvert Extra is distilled in small batches instead of huge ones. Forgive our being so closemouthed. But we fell flat on our faces in year after year of experiments before we found the formula.
After all that, we're not going to make it easy for anyone to steal our women.

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image via

Thursday, 26 September 2019

David Bowie Watches MTV (1983)

"It occurred to me, having watched MTV over the last few months, that’s it’s a solid enterprise, really. It’s got a lot going for it. I’m just floored by the fact that there are so few black artists featured on it. Why is that?"

G: I think we’re trying to move in that direction. We want to play artists that seem to be doing music that fits into what we want to play for MTV. The company is thinking in terms of narrow-casting.

Bowie: That’s evident. It’s evident in the fact that the only few black artists that one does see are on about 2:30 in the morning to around 6. Very few are featured predominantly during the day.

G: It’s funny, I think people have different perceptions. When you wind up watching -- let’s say you watch an hour or two or even three a day, people somehow come away with different ideas about what we are doing. We don’t have any kind of day-parting for anything, let alone for black artists, day-parted out of what would be “prime time.” We don’t have that.

Bowie: Because one sees a lot on -- there’s one black station on television that I keep picking up. I’m not sure which station it’s on. But there seem to be a lot of black artists making very good videos that I’m surprised aren’t used on MTV.

G: Of course, also, we have to try and do what we think not only New York and Los Angles will appreciate, but also Poughkeepsie or Midwest -- pick some town in the Midwest -- that would be scared to death by Prince, which we’re playing, or a string of other black faces and black music.

Bowie: That’s very interesting. Isn’t that interesting?

Via/Whole interview: LINK

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David Bowie YouTube Link Pack:

::: Life on Mars? WATCH/LISTEN
::: Ashes to Ashes: WATCH/LISTEN
::: The Man Who Sold the World: LISTEN
::: Space Oddity: WATCH/LISTEN
::: This Is Not America: WATCH/LISTEN
::: Changes: WATCH/LISTEN
::: Heroes: WATCH/LISTEN
::: When I Live My Dream: LISTEN
::: Wild is the Wind: WATCH/LISTEN
::: Love You Till Tuesday: LISTEN
::: In the Heat of the Morning: LISTEN
::: John, I'm Only Dancing: WATCH/LISTEN
::: Oh, You Pretty Things: WATCH/LISTEN

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photographs of David Bowie (London, Manchester Street, 1967) via and via and via

Wednesday, 25 September 2019

Dementia, Depression, Unattractive, Selfish. Younger People's Stereotypical Perceptions of Older People

According to a survey (n = 2.000) carried out in the U.K., "millennials" (here defined as people aged 18 to 34) have the most negative attitudes to older people and ageing in general. The findings showed a clear pattern indicating that attitudes to ageing become more positive as the age of respondent increases. Or: It becomes more negative as their age decreases. 40% of those age 18 to 34 believe "there isn't any way to escape getting dementia as you age", 25% think "it is normal to be unhappy and depressed when you are old" and 24% believe "older people can never really be thought of as attractive". 44% of 18-24 year olds agreed that in "elections, most older people just vote for their own selfish interests rather than the wellbeing of the younger generation and society as a whole". Respondents aged 18-34 said "old age" would begin at 53, those over 65 said it would start at 64.

People also seem to be living in age segregated places as 64% don't have a single friendship with an age gap of 30 years or more. Cultural or ethnic backgrounds play a major role since those identifying as from a black ethnic background showed an "overwhelmingly more positive" attitude.
Another finding was the "general perception that women faced more barriers growing older than men" as their physical attractiveness allegedly deteriorated more with age (Royal Society for Public Health, 2018).

- Royal Society for Public Health (2018). That Age Old Question. How Attitudes to Ageing Affect Our Health and Wellbeing. London, LINK
- photographs by Vivian Maier via (1977) and via (Chicago 1975)

Tuesday, 24 September 2019

The -ism Series (34): Inclusive Tourism

According to the World Tourism Organization, inclusive tourism has the potential to contribute to gender equality and reduce poverty. Tourism can take place "in a variety of environments, including rural or underdeveloped areas", hence its capacity to promote a more inclusive development. It can, theoretically (tourism employment tends to be unstable), create jobs in underdeveloped rural areas and by doing so reduce poverty. More than in any other sector, women develop as entrepreneurs (via) ...

... , however, there is still - like in many other business sectors - the problem of horizontal and vertical gender segregation of the labour market:
Horizontally, women and men are placed in different occupations - women are being employed as waitresses, cleaners, travel agencies sales persons, flight attendants, etc., whereas men are being employed as gardeners, construction workers, drivers, pilots, etc. Vertically, the typical "gender pyramid" is prevalent in the tourism sector - lower levels and occupations with few career development opportunities are being dominated by women and key managerial positions dominated by men. (Ramchurje, 2011)
Apart from the labour market, women play a role as travellers and face specific problems (mainly concerns for personal safety) when, for instance, travelling alone (Jordan & Aitchison, 2008). Inclusive tourism is not only about gender and socioeconomics. Sexual orientation, disability, and age are further dimensions that need to be considered.
One in three LGBT travellers (32%) feels they are treated differently due to their sexuality when on holiday. This was a key finding of research conducted in September 2016 by British-owned tour operator Virgin Holidays. The study – a survey of 1,000 adults who identified at LGBT conducted by OnePoll – also highlighted the fact that sexuality had a major influence on where LGBT British adults travelled, with two thirds (63%) refusing to visit somewhere with an unwelcoming attitude towards the LGBT community. It is clearly important for people to be able to feel comfortable when they travel, yet apparently almost a quarter (23%) of LGBT travellers change the way they act and try to camouflage their sexuality when on holiday.
Solo travelling "no longer lies with the 20-something backpacker that stereotypes suggest". In a survey, the highest percentage of people who would travel alone was found among 55-64-year-olds (35%) and over 65s (31%) which again means that the tourism industry needs to react to these travel habits (via) and to "demographic challenges" (as an ageing society is constantly called a "challenge") in general (Nikitina & Vorontsova, 2015). So far, only "very little attention" has been given  to senior tourists in literature (Patterson & Balderas, 2018).
For people with disabilities, tourism can still be a challenge (via). In many Western industrialised countries, discussions on Accessible Tourism for All started in the late 1970s and intensified in the past twenty years. Nevertheless, this approach is far from being widespread and still a niche segment (Kagermeier, n.d.) with a lack of products and services (Özogul & Baran, 2016).
‘Inclusive Tourism’ is often referred to as ‘Accessible Tourism’ or even ‘Disabled Tourism’. Disabled people were used to be and still are partially excluded from the leisure activities offered to people without mobility problems. Therefore accessible tourism is about making it easy for all people, irrespective of their gender, age or physical status, to enjoy tourism experiences. It is a set of services and facilities for individuals with special needs, who are for example disabled, elderly travellers, pregnant women, parents pushing their children in strollers or even people with temporary injuries, such as a broken leg or chronic ailments. All these people need to be particularly enabled during their travel. Thus, accessible tourism is the ongoing attempt to ensure that tourist destinations, products and services around the world are accessible to all people, regardless of their physical limitations, disabilities or age. (...) Not only the mobility-impaired people benefit from the improvements, but also their relatives, friends and other companions. Accessibility in tourism is a social right which concerns all citizens. It is often limited to a certain group of people but it should be seen in a more holistic approach (...).
Münch & Ulrich (2011)
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- Jordan, F. & Aitchison, C. (2008). Tourism and the sexualisation of the gaze: Solo female tourists' experiences of gendered power, surveillance and embodiment. Leisure Studies, 27(3), 329-349.
- Kagermeier, A. (n.d.). Challenges to attaining "Acessible Tourism for All" in German destinations as part of a CSR-oriented approach. BEST EN Think Tank XVI. Building Escellence in Sustainable Tourim Education Network.
- Özogul, G. & Baran, G. G. (2016). Accessible tourism: the golden key in the future for the specialized travel agencies. Journal of Tourism Futures, LINK
- Patterson, I. & Balderas, A. (2018). Continuing and Emerging Trends of Senior Tourism: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Population Ageing, LINK
- Ramchurje, N. A. (2011). "Tourism" a Vehicle for Women's Empowerment: Prospect and Challenges, LINK
- Nikitina, O. & Vorontsova, G. (2015). Aging Population and Tourism: Socially Determined Model of Consumer Behavior in the "Senior Tourism" Segment. Procedia - Social and Behavior Sciences, 214, 845-851.
- photograph by Vivian Maier via